My early career was within the horticultural industry, predominantly in managing my own landscape gardening business, but an interest in ecology led to my decision to return to full-time education in 1992 to read for a BSc in Environmental Biology with Chemistry at the University of Plymouth. Following graduating with 1st class honours in June 1996, I carried out marine ecotoxicological research at Plymouth Marine Laboratories investigating the impact of the 'booster biocide' compound Irgarol 1051, used in anti-fouling paints, upon the seagrass Zostera marina. Publications resulting from these early tests have now received over one hundred citations.
Following this, I joined an interdisciplinary project at the University of Plymouth, led by Professor Steve Rowland and Professor Tamara Galloway, concerned with the ecotoxicity of chemically dispersed and weathered crude oils. My main involvement within this multi-government agency-funded project was to develop and perform acute and chronic sediment bioassays using the marine amphipod Corophium volutator.
My PhD entitled "Effect-directed analysis of toxicants in unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs) of hydrocarbons from biodegraded crude oils" was completed at the end of 2007 (PhD abstract). The research involved state-of-the-art analysis of tissue extracts using comprehensive tandem gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToF-MS).
In 2008 I undertook nine months of collaborative research between the Epidemiology and Public Health Group at the Peninsular Medical School and the Environmental Toxicology Group at the University of Exeter's School of Biosciences, exploring the possible effects of environmental contaminants on human health. This led to a very high profile publication in JAMA-Journal of the American Medical Association, showing associations between the controversial endocrine-disrupting chemical bisphenol A and increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adults [doi: 10.1001/jama.300.11.1303].
Returning to the University of Plymouth's PEGG group in 2009, I have now joined Professor Steve Rowland's OUTREACH project to help investigate the toxicity of complex mixtures within the environment. Recently I was awarded a Japanese Society of the Promotion of Science (JSPS) short-term fellowship. This involved spending two months at the Institute for Each China Sea Research in Nagasaki, collecting bivalves and seagrasses and assessing their health. The Japanese samples will be analysed using OUTREACH project's state-of-the-art GC×GC-ToF-MS.
- Nature of unresolved complex mixtures of hydrocarbons
- Chronic effects of organic pollutants especially oil pollution
- Population and community level effects of sublethal pollutants
- Effects of pollutants on the behaviour of organisms
- Effects of environmental contaminants on human health
One of the joys of university life is the access to a wide variety of current research. My contribution to this has been to convey my recent research to a group of Stage 3 SoGEES students as part of their ecotoxicology module (EOE3212). Hopefully, this provided an insight into how a real research project is planned and undertaken, as well as some of the problems and pitfalls that can arise. I have successfully completed the General Teaching Associates (GTA) course and LTHE300, resulting in achievement of Certificate of Continued Professional Development - Learning, Teaching and Assessment: Theory and Practice. These teaching courses contributed towards the Postgraduate Certificate in Learning & Teaching in Higher Education and confirm associate membership of the Higher Education Academy.
- Jones, D., Scarlett, A.G., West, C.E., Frank, R.A. Gieleciak, R., Hager, D., Pureveen, J., Tegelaar, E. and Rowland, S.J. Elemental and spectroscopic characterisation of fractions of an acidic extract of oil sands process water. Chemosphere. (In press).
- Alam, M.S, West, C.E., Scarlett, A.G., Rowland, S.J. and Harrison, R.M. (2013) Application of 2D-GCMS reveals many industrial chemicals in airborne particulate matter. Atmospheric Environment 65, 101-111. [doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.10.014].
- West, C.E., Scarlett, A.G., Pureveen, J., Tegelaar, E. and Rowland, S.J. (2013) Abundant naphthenic acids in oil sands process-affected water: Studies by synthesis, derivatisation and two-dimensional gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 27, 357-365. [doi: 10.1002/rcm.6452].
- Jones, D., West, C.E., Scarlett, A.G., Frank, R.A. and Rowland, S.J. (2012) Isolation and estimation of the 'aromatic' naphthenic acid content of an oil sands process-affected water extract. Journal of Chromatography A 1247, 171-175. [doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2012.05.073].
- Rowland, S.J., West, C.E., Scarlett, A.G., Cheuk Ho and Jones, D. (2012) Differentiation of two industrial oil sands process-affected waters by two-dimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of diamondoid acid profiles. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 26, 572-576. [doi: 10.1002/rcm.6138].
- Scarlett, A.G., West, C.E., Jones, D., Galloway, T.S and Rowland, S.J. (2012) Predicted toxicity of naphthenic acids present in oil sands process-affected waters to a range of environmental and human endpoints. Science of the Total Environment 425, 119-127. [doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.02.064].
- Jones, D., Scarlett, A.G., West, C.E. and Rowland, S.J. (2011) Toxicity of individual naphthenic acids to Vibrio fisheri. Environmental Science & Technology 45, 9776-9782. [doi: 10.1021/es201948j].
- Rowland, S.J., Clough, R., West, C.E., Scarlett, A.G., Jones, D. and Thompson, S. (2011) Synthesis and mass spectrometry of some tri- and tetracyclic naphthenic acids. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 25, 2573-2578. [doi: 10.1002/rcm.5153].
- Rowland, S.J., Jones, D., Scarlett, A.G., West, C.E., Liu Pok Hin, Boberek, M., Tonkin, A., Smith, B.E. and Whitby, C. (2011) Synthesis and toxicity of some metabolites of the microbial degradation of synthetic naphthenic acids. Science of the Total Environment 409, 2936-2941. [doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.04.012].
- Rowland, S.J., Scarlett, A.G., Jones, D., West, C.E. and Frank, R.A. (2011) Diamonds in the rough: Identification of individual naphthenic acids in oil sands process water. Environmental Science & Technology 45, 3154-3159. [doi: 10.1021/es103721b].
This paper has been selected by ACS Environmental Science & Technology journal Editor-in-Chief Jerry Schnoor to appear additionally in a special online-only virtual issue entitled "Water-Energy Nexus" aimed at the scientifically literate general public.
- Rowland, S.J., West, C.E., Scarlett, A.G. and Jones, D. (2011) Identification of individual acids in a commercial sample of naphthenic acids from petroleum by two dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 25, 1741-1751. [doi: 10.1002/rcm.5040].
- Rowland, S.J., West, C.E., Scarlett, A.G., Jones, D., Boberek, M., Pan, L., Ng, M., Kwong, L. and Tonkin, A. (2011) Monocyclic and monoaromatic naphthenic acids: Synthesis & characterisation. Environmental Chemistry Letters 9, 525-533. [doi: 10.1007/s10311-011-0314-6].
- Rowland, S.J., West, C.E., Scarlett, A.G., Jones, D. and Frank, R.A. (2011) Identification of individual tetra- and pentacyclic naphthenic acids in oil sands process water by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 25, 1198-1204. [doi: 10.1002/rcm.4977].
- Rowland, S.J., West, C.E., Scarlett, A.G., Jones, D., Frank. R. and Hewitt, L.M. (2011) Steroidal aromatic 'naphthenic acids' in oil sands process-affected water: Structural comparisons with environmental estrogens. Environmental Science & Technology 45, 9806-9815. [doi: 10.1021/es202606d].
- Scarlett, A.G., Clough, R., West, C.E., Lewis, C.A., Booth, A.M. and Rowland, S.J. (2011) Alkylnaphthalenes: Priority pollutants or minor contributors to the poor health of marine mussels? Environmental Science & Technology 45, 6160-6166. [doi: 10.1021/es201234a].
- West, C.E., Jones, D., Scarlett, A.G. and Rowland, S.J. (2011) Compositional heterogeneity may limit the usefulness of some commercial naphthenic acids for toxicity assays. Science of the Total Environment 409, 4125-4131. [doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.05.061].
- Frenzel, M., Scarlett A., Rowland, S.J., Galloway T.S., Burton, S.K., Lappin-Scott, H.M. and Booth A.M. (2010) Complications with remediation strategies involving the biodegradation and detoxification of recalcitrant contaminant aromatic hydrocarbons. Science of the Total Environment 408, 4093-4101. [doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.04.042].
- Lewis, C., Guitart, C., Pook, C., Scarlett, A., Readman, J.W. and Galloway, T.S. (2010) Integrated assessment of oil pollution using biological monitoring and chemical fingerprinting. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 29, 1358-1366. [doi: 10.1002/etc.156].
- Scarlett, A., Dissanayake, A., Galloway, T.S. and Rowland, S.J. (2009) Behavioural, physiological and cellular responses following trophic transfer of toxic monoaromatic hydrocarbons. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 28, 381-387. [doi: 10.1897/08-298.1].
- Booth, A.M., Scarlett, A.G., Lewis, C.A., Belt, S.T. and Rowland, S.J. (2008) Unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs) of aromatic hydrocarbons: Branched alkyl indanes and branched alkyl tetralins are present in UCMs and accumulated by and toxic to, the mussel Mytilus edulis. Environmental Science & Technology 42, 8122-8126. [doi: 10.1021/es801601x].
- Lang, I.A., Galloway, T.S., Scarlett, A., Henley, W.E., Depledge, M., Wallace, R.B. and Melzer, D. (2008) Association of urinary bisphenol A concentration with medical disorders and laboratory abnormalities in adults. Journal of the American Medical Association 300, 1303-1310. [doi: 10.1001/jama.300.11.1303].
- Scarlett, A., Rowland, S.J., Galloway, T.S., Lewis, A.C. and Booth, A.M. (2008) Chronic sublethal effects associated with branched alkylbenzenes bioaccumulated by mussels. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 27, 561-567. [doi: 10.1897/07-347.1].
- Scarlett A., Canty M.N., Smith E.L., Rowland S.J. and Galloway T.S. (2007) Can amphipod behaviour help to predict chronic toxicity of sediments? Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 13, 1-13. [doi: 10.1080/10807030701341035].
- Scarlett, A., Galloway, T.S. and Rowland, S.J. (2007) Chronic toxicity of unresolved complex mixtures (UCM) of hydrocarbons in marine sediments. Journal of Soils & Sediments 7, 200-206. [doi: 10.1065/jss2007.06.232].
- Scarlett, A., Rowland, S.J., Canty, M., Smith, E.L. and Galloway, T.S. (2007) Method for assessing the chronic toxicity of marine and estuarine sediment-associated contaminants using the amphipod Corophium volutator. Marine Environmental Research 63, 457-470. [doi: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2006.12.006].
- Booth, A., Sutton, P.A., Lewis, C.A., Lewis, A.C., Scarlett, A., Wing Chau, Widdows, J. and Rowland, S.J. (2007) Unresolved complex mixtures of aromatic hydrocarbons: Thousands of overlooked persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic contaminants in mussels. Environmental Science & Technology 41, 457-464. [doi: 10.1021/es0615829].
This publication was featured on the ACS Publications website as one of the Most-Cited Articles published in 2007 and cited through the period ending 31 December 2007. Most-Cited Articles listed are based on data from Thomson Web of Science®.
- Scarlett, A., Canty, M., Nilsson, J., Smith, E.L., Rowland, S.J. and Galloway, T.S. (2005) Comparative toxicity of two oil dispersants, Superdispersant-25 and Corexit 9527, to a range of coastal species. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 24, 1219–1227. [doi: 10.1897/04-334R.1].
- Scarlett, A., Donkin, P., Fileman, T.W., Evans, S.V. and Donkin, M.E. (1999) Risk posed by the antifouling agent Irgarol 1051 to the seagrass, Zostera marina. Aquatic Toxicology 45, 159-170.
- Scarlett, A., Donkin, P., Fileman, T.W. and Morris, R.J. (1999) Occurrence of the antifouling herbicide, Irgarol 1051, within coastal-water seagrasses from Queensland, Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 38, 687-691.
- Scarlett, A., Donkin, M.E., Fileman, T.W. and Donkin, P. (1997) Occurrence of the marine antifouling agent Irgarol 1051 within the Plymouth Sound locality: Implications for the green macroalga Enteromorpha intestinalis. Marine Pollution Bulletin 34, 645-651.
- SETAC North America 33rd Annual Meeting, Long Beach, U.S.A., 11-15 November 2012. Oral presentation: "Distributions and Toxicity of Acids from Athabasca Oil Sands Process-Affected Waters".
- 36th International Symposium on Capillary Chromatography and 9th GCxGC Symposium, Riva del Garda, Italy, 27 May-1 June 2012. Poster presentation (colleague): Separation, Identification and Characterisation of Complex Mixtures of Naphthenic acids using GCxGC/ToF-MS.
- SETAC 6th World Congress/SETAC Europe 22nd Annual Meeting, Berlin, Germany, 20-24 May 2012.
- Oral presentation: "Where Has All the Oil Gone? Identification and Toxicity of Oil Degradation Products".
- Poster presentation: "Variation in Clearance Rates in Japanese Mussel Populations: Bioaccumulation of Organic Contaminants or Natural Variability?".
- Poster presentation (colleague): "Toxicity, Fractionation, Identification and Potential Estrogenic Effects of Acid Extracts of Oil Sands Process Waters".
- SETAC North America 32nd Annual Meeting, Boston, U.S.A., 13-17 November 2011. Oral presentation (colleague): "Identification and Toxicity of Individual Naphthenic Acids".
- Priority Substances Monitoring & Occurrences in the Environment: The Future Challenges for PBTs in Surface & Groundwaters, Dublin, Eire, 20 September 2011. Oral presentation: "Persistent, Toxicant and Overlooked: Pollutants we Fail to Measure".
- 22nd Annual Meeting of the British Organic Geochemical Society, Swansea, U.K., 6-7 July 2011. Oral presentation (colleague): "Using a Model for the Toxicological Assessment of Naphthenic Acids".
- SETAC Europe 21st Annual Meeting, Milan, Italy, 16-19 May 2011.
- Oral presentation: "Reported in the Gulf of Mexico Following the Deep Horizon Oil Spill: What Risk do Alkylnaphthalenes Pose?".
- Oral presentation (colleague): "Who Needs Lab Work? An Investigation into Predictive Ecotoxicological Computer Models and Naphthenic Acids".
- Poster presentation (colleague): "Characterisation of an Oil Contaminated Soil Using GC×GC-ToF-MS".
- SETAC North America 31st Annual Meeting, Portland, U.S.A., 7-11 November 2010. Oral presentation (colleague): "Improved Resolution and Identification of Isomeric Naphthenic Acids by GC×GC-MS".
- 21st Annual Meeting of the British Organic Geochemical Society, Manchester, U.K., 6-7 July 2010. Oral presentation (colleague): "Differential Toxicity of Alkylnaphthalenes; Common Oil Pollutants"; Oral presentation (colleague): "Toxicity of Naphthenic Acids".
- 34th International Symposium on Capilary Chromatography and 7th GC×GC Symposium, Riva del Garda, Italy, 30 May-4 June 2010.
- Poster presentation: "Application of GC×GC-ToF-MS for Identification of Alkylated Naphthalenes Within Tissues of Oil-Contaminated Wild Mussels and Comparison with Laboratory Oil-Exposed Mussels".
- Poster presentation (colleague): "Optimisation of GC×GC-ToF-MS for the Separation of Alkylated Naphthalene Isomers and its Application for the Analyses of Tissue Extracts Following Bioaccumulation Studies".
- Poster presentation (colleague): "Characterisation of Forgotten Pollutants & Resolving the UCM Using Pegasus 4D CF GC×GC-TOFMS".
- Poster presentation (colleague): "Use of GC×GC/TOF-MS in the Analysis of Petroleum Hydrocarbons: Advantages of Library-Searchable TOF Mass Spectra Combined with High Chromatographic Resolution".
- SETAC Europe 20th Annual Meeting, Seville, Spain, 23-27 May 2010. Poster presentation (colleague): "Toxicity of Alkylnaphthalenes: Common Environmental Contaminants".
- 23rd International Meeting on Organic Geochemistry, Torquay, U.K., 9-14 September 2007. Oral presentation (colleague): "Bioremediation of 'The Hump': Assessment of the Biodegradation of a Toxic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Unresolved Complex Mixture (UCM) and Measurement of Remaining Toxicity".
- 23rd International Meeting on Organic Geochemistry, Torquay, U.K., 9-14 September 2007. Poster presentation (colleague): "Quantification of Unresolved Complex Mixture (UCM) Hydrocarbons Using Multi-Dimentsional Gas Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (GCxGC-ToF-MS)".
- 23rd International Meeting on Organic Geochemistry, Torquay, U.K., 9-14 September 2007. Poster presentation: "Branched Alkylbenzenes: A Major Component of Unresolved Complex Mixtures Bioaccumulated in Mussels?".
- SETAC Europe 17th Annual Meeting, Porto, Portugal, 20-24 May 2007. Poster presentation: "Does Petroleum Hydrocarbon Monitoring of the Marine Environment Require an Upgrade?".
- SETAC Europe 17th Annual Meeting, Porto, Portugal, 20-24 May 2007. Poster presentation: "Effect-Directed-Analysis of Unresolved Complex Mixtures of Hydrocarbons (UCM). Identification of Persistent, Bioaccumulative and Toxic Components".
- 160th Meeting of the Society for General Microbiology, Manchester, U.K., 26-29 March 2007. Poster presentation (colleague): "Microbial Toxicity and Degradation of a Monoaromatic Crude Oil Fraction".
- SETAC North America 27th Annual Meeting, Québec, Canada, 5-9 November 2006. Oral presentation (colleague): "Unresolved Complex Mixtures (UCMs): Unlocking the Secret of Thousands of Overlooked Persistent, Bioaccumulative and Toxic Contaminants".